U.S. Constitution (New / Amended)

A 2022 Vision: Setting up a Framework toward a new and/or amended Constitution of the United States of America

Compiled and written by: Lee Foulkes – admin@openbookhistory.org

Contributing editors: Diego Ariel Martinez-Lugo, Oscar Chavoya-Aceves

Last revision: 21 February 2022

Overview

The original U.S. Constitution was written in 1789, and ratified by all 13 states in 1791. It is now the oldest Constitution in the world.

Thomas Jefferson stated that a country’s constitution should be rewritten every 19 years. Instead, the U.S. Constitution, which Jefferson did not help to write (he was in Paris serving as U.S. minister to France when the Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia), has prevailed since 1789. The typical African constitution lasts only about 10 years, while those in Latin America average 12.4 years, and Haiti writes a new constitution about every three years. On the other hand, constitutions in western Europe typically endure for 32 years, and those in Asia for 19 years. “Jefferson thought the dead should not rule the living, thus constitutions should expire frequently, but the fact is that the U.S. Constitution quickly became enshrined by the public and is the oldest constitution in the world,” said Zachary Elkins, a professor of political science at Illinois. [1]

Now that the U.S. Constitution is more than 230 years old, it’s long overdue that it be updated to the 21st century in which we now live.

Much of the existing Constitution would remain intact; however many additions, clarifications, and stipulations would be made, as illustrated by this proposal. The following is just a starting point, or a framework for a suggested overhaul of the U.S. Constitution, and by no means represents a final draft – and which can and would be revised.

The dynamics of the social context at the end of colonial times, and immediately after the American Revolution, have drastically changed after more than two centuries. The U.S. territory increased from 13 states on the Atlantic seaboard, to a worldwide empire, with a population thousands of times greater than it was in 1791.  The capitalist economic system was hatched in March of 1776 with the publishing of Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, which by no coincidence was only four months before the Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson in June 1776, and signed on July 4, 1776.  Jefferson was famous for his saying, “All men are created equal”, despite the fact the he owned approximately 200 slaves.  African slaves in the U.S. (men only) were not allowed to be citizens, and hence vote, until 1865. The U.S. government did not guarantee women of any race the right to vote until 1921. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, and by the end of the 19th century, Native Americans were confined to live on reservations, which were essentially open-air prisons.  Despite having lived on their homeland for more than 2,000 years, they were not even allowed to be citizens until 1924.  The state of Arizona flouted federal law by refusing to set up polling places on reservations until 1948.  When the Navajo Code Talkers came back home after World War II as war heroes, they could not even vote in their home state for another three years.

The 13th amendment, which supposedly abolished slavery, never did abolish it in the American prison system, where it remains legal thru 2022.  The U.S. has gone thru eras of industrialization from the 1830s to the 1970s, and de-industrialization when millions of jobs were sent overseas to increase profits for the masters of industry.  The U.S. Industrial Age was then replaced by the financialization of the economy since the 1980s, which meant most Americans were not able to buy houses, cars, or a college education without becoming lifelong debt slaves to Wall Street banks.

American society has passed from being an emancipated nation from England, to be at the center of the international scenario and, having subordinated itself to the whims of an international cartel of financiers, based mainly in New York City and London.  In addition, we have partaken in a revolution in communication technologies since the Internet was opened up for business, and the general public in the 1990s.  It is now self-evident to millions of Americans that some of these social, structural changes must be reflected in the supreme law and some things must be explicitly forbidden, so that it can be useful and honor its promises to “our posterity”.

Since the “Reagan Revolution” of the 1980s, an undesirable interference of illegitimate powers – namely international bankers based in Wall Street and London – have driven our “democratic” institutions to become non-essential formalities.  By 2022, Americans have found themselves living in perpetual political gridlock, while the majority of hard-working Americans have had their wealth extracted by these large financial institutions, which have consolidated their power since 1979, when consumer protections against credit card debt were removed by the U.S. government  – resulting in a 40+ year trend where Americans have found themselves immersed in perpetual debt. Our political life has become plagued by staged, incessant partisan quarrels that result in no progress for the American people at large.  Above all, all Americans must put the elevated ideals summarized in the statement:

“We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

A new constitution should include provisions to curb the scourge of overly-aggressive policing of the people and ever-increasing record levels of mass incarceration, of which the U.S. has become #1 in the world in per-capita mass incarceration since Joe Biden’s draconian crime bill of 1994, which was wholly supported by both the Democratic and Republican parties, with virtually no input from the American people.  We have henceforth jeopardized our political stability and, consequently, the very existence of the republic.

The First Amendment right to free speech should remain intact, but in order to restore this right, which has been seized by the top less than 1% of wealthy individuals, who have, since the 1980s, bought up almost all of the major media thru media consolidation, including, since 2005, Internet platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc. The right to free speech must be restored to all Americans, regardless of their ability or lack thereof to buy up these multi-billion dollar media platforms.

We determine to commit far more funds for housing, education, and healthcare while drastically cutting the military and police budgets which mainly serve to not only export endless violence upon other countries, but also unnecessarily imposes violence onto our own population here in the U.S., which directs the brunt of the police violence onto the “Black/Brown” communities, and this should be ended immediately, and permanently.

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The U.S. Constitution

Text Retrieved 1-January-2022 from: http://www.usconstitution.net/const.txt . Hypertext version at: https://www.usconstitution.net/const.html

This document will consist of two sections.  The first section will show the existing U.S. Constitution in the left column, along with comments to prospectively reform parts of it in the right column.  The second section will propose future amendments that could, and should be made to the existing constitution. At the end are new amendments which would be highly applicable to contemporary times.

OriginalProspective Revisions
We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.The general concepts of “Justice” and “the general welfare” of the people would be re-examined, re-evaluated, and updated to fit the modern times we now live in, more than 230 years after the Constitution was originally adopted.
Article 1. 
Section 1 All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.The U.S. Senate should be eliminated; House of Representatives will remain.
Section 2 (House of Representatives) The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of 25 Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.Terms for the House of Representatives would be increased to four years, the same length of time as the president. House terms could be staggered in between presidential election years, either every year (one-quarter of the House would be up for elections per year), or every two years (one-half of the House every two years). Term limits of the House of Representatives should be set at 12 years. No (non-White) human being should be considered as only three fifths of a person – both in de jure and de facto.
Section 3 (Senate) The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present. Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.The Senate, which has proven to always have been an elitist, highly exclusive institution, has six-year terms that are even longer than Presidential terms of four years. Under the current system, the states of Wyoming and California each have two senators, altho California has approximately 68 times the population that Wyoming has. The existing bicameral system was a compromise with the slave states in the name of establishing a union; therefore, the Senate – which was created only to pacify slaveowners – should be eliminated. By virtue of elimination of the Senate, all duties assigned to the Senate would be merged into the House of Representatives.
Section 4 The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Place of Choosing Senators. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day. 
Section 5 Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide. Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.Secretive proceedings should be greatly diminished, and the American public should be allowed to know what is going on with their tax dollars.
Section 6 The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place. No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.Congress should not be allowed to vote for its own pay increases, as it is an obvious conflict of interests.  Pay should be tied to a maximum multiple of the federal minimum wage, for example, no more than eight times more than the federal minimum wage.
Section 7 All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.Eliminate gender bias: pronouns he should be changed to s/he; his to her/his Pronouns would also include gender non-conforming and non-binary people.
Section 8 The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; To borrow money on the credit of the United States; To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States; To establish Post Offices and Post Roads; To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries; To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations; To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; To provide and maintain a Navy; To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces; To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; And To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.No president should be allowed to execute any foreign war without a formal, official declaration of war by the U.S. Congress. The U.S. populace should also have veto power – that any official declaration of war would be bound to a direct general vote. All Land and Water that has been taken from Native Americans, in violation of treaties with same, should be returned at once.
Section 9 The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year 1808, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another. No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State.Importation of people (then called slaves, now called “guest workers”, who are virtual slaves, or serfs, tied to only one employer, with no right to change jobs), and the taxing thereof, should be prohibited. This emoluments clause shall be enforced, as written in the Constitution, on all presidents, Congresspeople, and federal workers, at all times. The Pentagon is the only federal agency that is exempted from passing periodic audits.  It should be required to pass an audit every year –  if not, money should be withheld from this institution until it passes the audit.
Section 10 No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress. No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.Fiat currency, otherwise known as the “petro dollar,” which has been in effect since coming off the gold standard in 1972, should be eliminated.  The new standard could be gold, silver, or bitcoin.
Article 2, Section 1 The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate.  The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall choose from them by Ballot the Vice-President. The Congress may determine the Time of choosing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States. No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them. Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”The existing “winner take all” Electoral vote system in presidential elections (which 48 of the 50 states partake in) should be abolished. This could be achieved by, for example, following states such as Maine and Nebraska, who split their allocation of electoral votes, for example, 60% for one candidate and 40% for the opposing candidate according to the percentage of votes in that state – not the “winner take all” system of 100% and 0%, which 48 states currently do.
Article 2, Section 2 The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.No changes suggested
Article 2, Section 3 He [the president] shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.s/he
Article 2, Section 4 The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.No changes suggested
Article 3, Section 1 The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.Term limits for judges serving on the Supreme Court should be limited to a maximum of 18 years – and lifetime appointments should be done away with. Supreme Court nominees should be voted on – just like a president is – and not appointed.
Article 3, Section 2 The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; to Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make. The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.No changes suggested
Article 3, Section 3 Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court. The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.No changes suggested
Article 4, Section 1 Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.No changes suggested
Article 4, Section 2 The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.“No Person held to Service or Labour… escaping…” is an indirect reference to slaves being returned to their owners – which was legal at the time.  This clause should be stricken.
Article 4, Section 3 New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.No changes suggested
Article 4, Section 4 The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.No changes suggested
Article 5 The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.  No changes suggested
Article 6 All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.  No changes suggested
Article 7. The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same. Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names. George Washington – President and deputy from Virginia New Hampshire – John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman Massachusetts – Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King Connecticut – William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman New York – Alexander Hamilton New Jersey – William Livingston, David Brearley, William Paterson, Jonathan Dayton Pennsylvania – Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouvernour Morris Delaware – George Read, Gunning Bedford Jr., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom Maryland – James McHenry, Daniel of St Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll Virginia – John Blair, James Madison Jr. North Carolina – William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson South Carolina – John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler Georgia – William Few, Abraham Baldwin Attest: William Jackson, Secretary 
Amendment 1 (1791) Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.The people have a right to own the press, and no private investor should be able to purchase this right, and henceforth suppress their right to free speech.  Internet sites such as YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, TikTok, etc. should be designated as public utilities owned and regulated by the people.
Amendment 2 (1791) A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.  When the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1791, a musket could only shoot about one bullet per minute.  Today’s machine guns can fire up to 1,000 rounds per minute, so the Constitution should be updated to consider modern technological advances. Liability insurance could be required for new gun purchases, just as it is for driving an automobile on the public roads.
Amendment 3 (1791) No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 
Amendment 4 (1791) The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.  Since 2001, the NSA (National Security Agency) has rapidly taken away Americans’ right to privacy.  Private information on their cell phones has been seized by the government, who can tap into them at will, unbeknownst to the cell phone user.  The Fourth Amendment should be immediately enforced upon the NSA.
Amendment 5 (1791) No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.Since Joe Biden’s 1994 draconian crime bill, supported by both Democrats and Republicans, civil asset forfeiture was drastically implemented, violating the Constitutional mandate that no “private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.”  Since 1994, even defendants who have been acquitted in court have found it virtually impossible to get their personal possessions returned to them. The Constitution must be enforced upon the U.S. Congress, which routinely ignores its mandates.
Amendment 6 (1791) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.No changes suggested
Amendment 7 (1791) In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.No changes suggested
Amendment 8 (1791) Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.  Cruel and unusual punishments should not be used as they currently are upon Julian Assange, and illegally held prisoners in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, many of whom have now been there for more than 20 years, and are typically held without being charged with any crime; they are simply P.O.W.s.  They should be released immediately, and all land be returned to Cuba immediately.
Amendment 9 (1791) The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.  No changes suggested
Amendment 10 (1791) The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.  It is the people, who by default, should have the power, not merely billionaires and their private equity firms. The 2010 “Citizens United” court decision, which essentially allowed billionaires to buy out the government / media complex – should be immediately annulled as person-hood should only apply to people, and not to corporations or banking institutions.
Amendment 11 (1795) The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.No changes suggested
Amendment 12 (1804) The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.rescind this amendment; abolish the electoral college system
Amendment 13 (1865) 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.The clause “except as a punishment for crime”, which still permits slavery, should be removed.  Even if someone is convicted of a crime, slavery should be immediately abolished in the prison system, as this constitutes cruel and unusual punishment, especially for those who were unjustly convicted.
Amendment 14 (1868) 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.1. Joe Biden’s 1994 crime bill allows even naturalized citizens to be deported, even for minor crimes such as having stolen a candy bar 20 years before they were naturalized as a citizen. The language of Amendment 14 should be enforced upon the U.S. Congress, who passed this 1994 crime bill despite it being a clear violation of Amendment 14. 2. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted in 1868, when it excluded Indians, or Native Americans, as citizens.  In 1924, the federal government allowed Native Americans to become citizens.  Therefore, the language of Amendment 14 should be revised so that Native Americans are no longer excluded as citizens. This amendment also grants citizenship, and hence the right to vote, only to male citizens.  This should also be revised to include all people, regardless of gender or gender identity, as well.  
Amendment 15 (1870) 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.No changes suggested
Amendment 16 (1913) The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.No changes suggested
Amendment 17 (1913) The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.  When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.  This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.Amendment 17 should be rescinded, and the U.S. Senate should be merged into the House of Representatives as the only federal legislative body.
Amendment 18  (1919) 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.The prohibition of alcohol, Amendment 18, was later overturned by Amendment 21.
Amendment 19  (1920) The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.No changes suggested
Amendment 20  (1933) 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article. 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.Senate should be merged into the House of Representatives.
Amendment 21 (1933) 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. 3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.repeals “Prohibition”, (18th amendment)
Amendment 22 (1951) 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.Term limits for both President and House of Representatives should be fixed at 12 years.
Amendment 23 (1961) 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.No changes suggested
Amendment 24 (1964) 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.No changes suggested
Amendment 25 (1967) 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President. 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress. 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President. 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.  Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.“he” should be changed to “s/he”
Amendment 26 (1971) 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.No changes suggested
Amendment 27 (1992) No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.No changes suggested

end of U.S. Constitution

The first seven words of the U.S. Constitution are: “We the People of the United States”. The following proposed amendments are intended to benefit the American people, not the power elite:

Proposed amendments to the U.S. Constitution

The U.S. Constitution does not specifically address such issues as home ownership, evictions, minimum wages for workers, and how police should interact with the communities they serve.  These issues, among others, will be addressed in the following prospective amendments:

Disclaimer: This draft is not intended to be a final written document.  It merely puts forth guidelines, and the “spirit of the law,” that each prospective Constitutional amendment should follow.

Proposed Amendment #1 –  Right to Housing

Immediate land reform shall be instituted. All Americans over the age of 18 (age negotiable), regardless of race, religion, creed, gender, sexual orientation, etc., would be titled and guaranteed a small plot of land, irrevocable, regardless of their income or lack thereof. This small plot of land would include an apartment or small house, with moderate, livable, and humane living conditions. The current housing system would be overhauled, in which virtually all land is currently in the hands of less than 10% of the people who are wealthy landowners, who can raise rents as high as they want, and then routinely commence inhumane evictions on hard-working, or even disabled American people, merely for the sake of increasing their personal net worth.  Most major American cities have at least tens of thousands of vacant homes/apartments, owned by these landowners, who are typically not concerned if hundreds or even thousands of their housing units remain vacant for years, or even decades. Land should be – post-haste – expropriated and allocated according to the basic individual needs of the people, and not for the unlimited capitalization pleasures of already wealthy landowners.

Any Tohono O’odham and Pascua Yaqui tribal land, (and all other Native American land) taken in violation of long-standing treaties or legal agreements, should be returned at once. An anti-gentrification component should be established which would respect home and land to not be under threat by capitalist expansion, such as what we have seen, and continue to see, in the downtown area of Tucson, such as the land between 4th Avenue, Broadway and Congress over the past decade.

This wealth and unlimited property accumulation via speculation would be permanently banned, as it comes at the expense of families, often with kids, living in this housing being summarily, capriciously, and inhumanely evicted.  Major gaps in wealth inequality would be quickly reduced with land reform. Tenants should have to right to apply any rent money they pay to a rent-to-buy opportunity in order to purchase the home they’re in, which would be designated as their primary residence.

For primary residences, home mortgages would be eliminated for moderate, primary residences, and if any home mortgages would be allowed to continue, only public banks would be allowed to extend these loans, at government controlled, low interest rates.  The term of the loan, if applicable, should not exceed 10-15 years, for people who may desire an upgraded home.

In the Tucson court system, from 2010-2020, landlord/tenant disputes were decided with about 95% of the judgements decided in favor of the landlord.  The tenants often do not even get a day in court, as landlords’ high-priced lawyers often file for and are “rubber-stamped” – granted a “summary judgement,” which undemocratically eliminates the tenant’s right to even contest the landlords’ dictates in court. Many judges themselves are landowers, and tend to be extremely biased in favor of landlords, which is a clear conflict of interests.

Homelessness would be virtually eliminated. Evictions should be reduced by 90-99%, and foreclosures would be virtually entirely banned, except in cases of extreme luxurious living becoming unsustainable and unaffordable – even those people losing luxurious housing would be guaranteed a decent, livable place to live.

Rents and Evictions would be banned on primary residences, and may only occur on secondary or additional luxurious housing units.

If a homeowner dies, which results in the housing unit becoming vacant, inheritances could be limited to $1 million (or another negotiable number) per decedent.  Abandoned housing would be turned over to the government to provide for future needs of the community at-large. No one’s house would be confiscated, unless, for example, it has a net worth of over $2 million, a number which is both negotiable and would vary based on location.

Proposed Amendment #2 – National/State/Local Budgets

The following figures are rough general guidelines for government budgets (which may be oversimplified for the sake of clarity) that can and would be adjusted based on locality:

Housing 40%

Education 30% – Money to education must be roughly doubled nationwide, which would come out of existing bloated police/military budgets, actual % could vary based on locality.

Health care 20% – Universal health care would be mandated.  This would include all types of preventative care, and also mental health.

Police/”Justice” Courts Not to exceed 10%. Currently this budget consumes up more than 50% of resources in many localities (i.e., 54% in Los Angeles 2020 FY budget), which imprisons far too many non-violent people, and instigates far too many unnecessary foreign wars for empire building. Incessantly bombing other countries to pilfer their natural resources may make American billionaires infinitely richer, but if it comes at the expense of making 70-80% of Americans much poorer, it often claims many of their lives in the process, and badly tarnishes the American “brand” worldwide. History has proven that empires are not only economically unsustainable over time, but also the violence that is exported onto other countries is inevitably turned inward onto brutalizing its own citizens, rather than investing in its own communities.

Police and aggressive policing should be replaced by systems of care and compassion – which would pre-emptively and virtually eliminate crime, forgoing the need of a police state.

Proposed Amendment #3 – Citizens of the United States

Citizens would be defined as anyone born in states or territories of the U.S., or having at least one parent who is a U.S. citizen.  Anyone working in the U.S. and paying taxes for more than 10 years would be eligible to apply for citizenship, and be promptly approved when specific conditions are met no more than two years after that. There would be no more 20-year waits for citizenship. Territories such as Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, Hawaii, etc. could be allowed to vote locally as to whether or not they want to become or remain part of the United States.

Proposed Amendment #4 – Immigration

As in any country, immigration would be restricted to a manageable annual amount. There is a simple solution to the perpetual “immigration crisis” which has been heavily debated, yet not resolved in recent decades.

EmployERs would be held accountable for hiring eligible citizens, and not employEEs.  This would ensure that as soon as someone is given a job in this country, even “guest workers”, they should immediately be fully legalized (“2nd class citizens” or “illegal workers” could not and would not exist).  In the rare case of an undocumented person deemed to be a serious criminal, they could immediately be sent back to their country of origin, or be placed into a restorative justice program. Any employEE found to be working illegally in the U.S. would not be held responsible (unless self-employed), but rather their employER would be personally responsible for paying any taxes, fines, etc.

A major part of the solution would also include not interfering in other countries – militarily, economically, politically, socially, environmentally, or otherwise – which creates conditions in which immigrants are forced to leave the country that they would prefer to stay in in the first place.

Proposed Amendment #5 – Restoring the 4th Amendment right to privacy

Existing Constitutional rights, such as those to free speech, would be preserved and shall not be infringed by any government agency, such as the NSA. The Government would have no right to access and/or seize one’s cell phone or computer communications without a warrant, and the process in obtaining said warrant should always be publicly transparent, unlike the existing secretive FISA court.

The government should strictly regulate Tech corporations’ selling and buying of our data and personal information.

Proposed Amendment #6 – Utilities / Technology, “Digital Bill of Rights”

All utilities, including electricity, water, heating gas, and hi-speed Internet access – would be public and non-profit – none of them privatized for profit. In 2020 and 2021, millions of lower- and middle-class students were not able to complete online classwork because of a lack of affordable, sufficient Internet access, which  This even further exacerbated the educational gap between rich and poor. All Americans (who want it) would be allotted hi-speed Internet access, in order to function in the modern world, and no student would be denied this public access due to lack of money.

Privatized major social media platforms such as Facebook Twitter, YouTube, among many others, routinely make arbitrary, capricious decisions as to who should and should not be granted their constitutional right to free speech.  These privatized monopolies should be controlled by the government, and made public utilities in order to maximize and guarantee everyone’s right to free speech.

“Taking back and redefining the commons” would not only include digital commons –  the technological needs of the community – but also guarantee, as a human right, access to energy, electricity, water, and other elements necessary for sustenance.

Proposed Amendment #7 – Media

Major news media should immediately be given over to the people, for whom it should belong. The major media would then serve the American people at-large, and not merely serve as the mouthpiece of billionaires and the other top 1% to buy it out and hence monopolize it.  Billionaires should have their major media assets expropriated and placed in the public domain, and not privatized.  Smaller, more specialized media outlets may still be allowed to be private. Everyone would be guaranteed an outlet on the Internet to express their free speech should they wish to exercise this right, which should in no wise be abridged by media moguls, who would be displaced.

Proposed Amendment #8 – Labor guarantees

As of 2022, the federal minimum wage of $7.25 / hour, which has not been raised since 2009, would be raised to a more livable wage of $17/hr., which would be a national mandate, and may be higher in certain localities. Workers with more than one year in any business would be made shareholders in the profits of the business, making the business essentially a “Worker’s Co-op”.  For example, if a CEO’s wage is increased by 20% at any given time, then it should necessarily follow that all workers would also receive a concurrent 20% raise.  No CEO would be allowed to make more than 10 times (a # that could be adjusted) the salary of the average worker.

Huawei is a major Chinese cell phone maker, comparable to Apple’s iPhone and Google’s Android phones.  As of late 2021, Huawei was about 70% owned by its employees.  By contrast, American companies such as Apple and Google are typically 0 -1% owned by its employees.  Creating a co-op, that is a corporation in which its stockholders are its employees – and not wealthy, detached investors – equitably distributes wealth far better to those who actually produce the wealth, and not have its produced wealth extracted by a single corporate CEO and a handful of wealthy shareholders.

Proposed Amendment #9 – Financial / Banking

The Federal Reserve Bank, or “Fed” which is a private banking monopoly instituted in 1913, would be replaced by public banking, which already exists in North Dakota.  Public banking is intended to further the public good, and not to further enrich already extremely wealthy private investors and bankers.

All banks would be made public, with low to zero interest rates, private banks would be banned for their historically and inevitably rapacious and usurious practices, due to virtually no government regulation since the 1980s. The U.S. government would immediately seize control of large private Wall Street banks, which already own most of the Fed, and have proven to have consigned the vast majority of Americans to permanent debt slavery. This oppressive paradigm would be immediately abolished, which would free most Americans from permanent debt slavery. The government should immediately place under audit all banks, and any banker found to have committed financial fraud should have their misappropriated wealth confiscated and returned to the people from whom is was fraudulently taken [albeit legally], and the government will put an immediate end to all financial fraud and predatory practices by American banks, and ensure this will not happen again.

All home mortgages, for people who have only one home, should be immediately cancelled, with the possible exception of homes valued at more than $1 million, a number that would be adjusted according to local housing prices.  At least 90% of all credit card and auto loan debt should be cancelled for working people who live “paycheck to paycheck.”  Some exceptions may be made, for example, for cars worth more than $100,000 (a number which could vary), which may have to be turned in for a less expensive car.

Proposed Amendment #10 – Student loans

Student loans will be immediately cancelled. Higher education will be provided for by the government for anyone able to academically qualify and satisfactorily keep up with the coursework, as educating our populace, unburdened by debt, is essential to optimizing the country’s long-term productivity.

Proposed Amendment #11 – Environmental Protection

A “Green New Deal” would be implemented. Of course, this could ultimately entail hundreds of different line items, but as a general rule, we would use solar energy as much as possible to drastically reduce high-pollutant emissions such as fossil fuel burning, coal, etc.

The U.S. would re-institute the Environmental Protection Agency, make it among the top five strongest and strictest in the world, and constitutionally ban its funding from being cut by any imperious or capricious president or legislature. The environment, including humans and animals, would be granted greater rights than ever before in American history and dedicated to protecting all endangered animals anywhere in the world, working in conjunction with other countries.  Federal pollution guidelines would be much more strictly enforced than in the past, and this would be immutable – not based on any partisan politics. Severe penalties would be placed on anyone found to be financing poaching such as those who buy such items as elephant tusks or rhinoceros horns.

Fast food drive thrus, which waste billions of gasoline each day from idling cars, would be virtually banned, or heavily taxed, which money would go to fund the EPA.

All businesses and school would be required to recycle items to the maximum degree feasible.

Nuclear energy would be rapidly phased out, fossil fuels would be rapidly replaced by solar energy to the greatest extent possible. The U.S. military is by far the world’s biggest polluter.  Cutting the military budget drastically would immediately and substantially reduce world pollution and destruction to the environment.

Proposed Amendment #12 – Police Departments

All police departments in the U.S. should have their budgets cut by 20% for each of the next three fiscal years.  The public should have 100% transparency of all complaints filed against police, and these departments shall not be provided with any military equipment without the prior public knowledge.

If a police officer is sued for violating a person’s civil rights, the public would no longer pay for this lawsuit. All police officers would be required to carry liability insurance, paid for by the public, but if willful violations against the public cause their rates to go up, they must pay the difference in the liability insurance out of their own pocket. If any one of them becomes a high liability due to high rates, and cannot pay the rates, and therefore become uninsurable, they would be de-certified and dismissed from the police force, in much the same way a bad driver with high insurance rates would become too much of a liability to drive, and therefore become uninsurable, essentially taking them off the road. Likewise, police officers who become too much of a liability would be quickly rendered no longer viable to serve in the police department. Racial demographics of the police should be comparable to the communities that they serve, and they should be required to live in the communities in which they serve.

Police would no longer be commissioned to deal with cases involving mental health issues; only specially-trained personnel would serve in this capacity, who would be trained in non-violent interventions.

Proposed Amendment #13 – Due process guarantees

Effective immediately, police would no longer be allowed to arbitrarily violate one’s Constitutional right to privacy.  “No knock” police entries would be unconstitutional. “Stop and frisk” policies by police would be banned. “Routine” traffic stops would no longer be routine, rather they would be almost entirely banned, unless police can prove an imminent danger to public safety was present, and the traffic stop was absolutely necessary to protect public safety. The burden of proof would be on the police.  Speed limits would be raised to “reasonable and prudent” speeds, and not arbitrarily low speeds, to be approved by the public, as these excessively low speed limits are used to justify unnecessary stops, and regularly constitute police harassment of peaceful citizens who just want to be left alone when driving perfectly safely. Use of radar guns or “gotchas” would be eliminated, where no imminent danger to the public is present.

Proposed Amendment #14 – Prisons

The antiquated bail system would be immediately eliminated. As of 2021, 214 of the 216 countries in the world have already banned this system which frees the rich for being rich, and further punishes and incarcerates the poor for being poor. Only the U.S. and its former colony, the Philippines, have not yet banned this antiquated and oppressive system.  Punitive carceral systems would immediately be replaced with restorative systems.

At least 60% of all (non-violent) offenders in prison in the U.S. would be immediately released (within 90 days). All criminal records would be expunged with the rare exception of cases such as murder, rape, and other heinous crimes, including large financial “white collar” crimes. Marijuana would be immediately legalized in every state in the country. The “War on Drugs” and the DEA would be abolished. ICE would be defunded 20% per year for five years, and then abolished. Prison slavery would be abolished, as this type of slavery never was abolished by the 13th Amendment of the existing U.S Constitution. Private prisons would be abolished, and they could be converted into schools, medical facilities, or housing facilities, which would serve to build up our country, rather than degrade it with an endless cycle of cruel humiliation and senseless punishment. Drug addiction would be treated as a medical issue, not a criminal one.

Proposed Amendment #15 – Military spending

As of August 2021, the U.S. had 750 overseas military bases scattered across 81 countries, colonies, or territories – on every continent except Antarctica. [2]  Through the end of 2021, the U.S. continues to spend more on its military than the next 10 countries combined.

Military spending should be cut by 20% for each of the next three fiscal years. The U.S. does not need to launch perpetual offensive wars to maintain bases and control of 81 countries – we should turn inward, and merely remain strong for self-defense, and cease launching senseless wars which are mainly intended to further enrich military contractors, and in the process creates enemies all around the world.  Instead of spending billions of dollars to bomb these countries, it would be better advised to spend this money on building up their infrastructure, education, and healthcare, and hence sowing seeds of friendship rather than violence. History has proven that excessive, wanton, and gratuitious violence has hastened the downfall of every empire.  Investment in foreign countries, rather than destruction, would also prevent the creation of U.S. enemies who are hell-bent on revenge, which occurred on 9/11/2001.

The U.S. would withdraw all military forces from countries such as Germany, Japan, Iraq, Ukraine, – and many others – and respect the sovereignty of all countries on Earth, just as we want our sovereignty respected by them.  Rogue U.S. Presidents would immediately cease weaponizing the U.S. dollar by threatening economic sanctions and military destruction upon countries such as Iran, Russia, Venezuela, North Korea, China, Nicaragua, Cuba, or any other country, as it violates the Geneva Convention of international law to which the U.S. was a signatory after World War II, and remains in effect to this day. Rogue threats such as these made by any U.S. President should result in immediate impeachment and removal from office.

The bombing of foreign countries should stop immediately unless war is formally declared by Congress, which is already mandated in Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution. Compliance of this Constitutional mandate should be enforced upon all Congresspeople and the president, effective immediately. Arms sales to other countries, for the purpose of fomenting offensive strikes on other countries (i.e., arms to Saudi Arabia in order to bomb Yemen), would also be strictly banned.

Proposed Amendment #16 – Political Parties / Legalized Political Bribery

As of January 2022, there were nearly 100 state-level ballot-qualified political parties in the United States. Many Americans believe there are only two, because of the two-party duopoly they have conspired to create in order to eliminate any competition.

Due to more than a century of unbridled corruption, the legalized political bribery institutionalized by both the Democratic and Republican parties must lead to these two parties, and only these two parties, to be immediately and permanently banned for egregious and unconscionable conduct that has proven to be overwhelmingly detrimental to the American people at-large over the past 100+ years. The oligarchs which control these two parties would be immediately and permanently banned from political participation, to be replaced by the American people at-large.

The Democratic-Republican duopoly party will be immediately replaced by other existing or new political parties, such as the Libertarian, Green, Constitution, or Reform parties, plus about 100 other parties already in existence (many of these parties only exist in certain states), but effectively kept off almost all state ballots collectively by the existing Democratic-Republican duopoly. Twelve of these little-known parties actually received votes in the 2016 presidential election in many different states.   The Democrat and Republican parties should be prepared to go the way of the Whig Party before the Civil War, which permanently went defunct.

All political “campaign contributions”, or legalized bribes, would be immediately and permanently banned.  All campaigns would heretofore be publicly-financed. Violators would be charged with political bribery and corruption, and prosecuted. Corporations such as oil and “big pharma” corporations would no longer be allowed to routinely purchase politicians.

Proposed Amendment #17 – Legislative Branch supremacy

The principles of legislative justice would entail the inviolability of the Constitution and amendment procedures. It would also eliminate the cumbersome and inefficient bi-cameral system currently used by the federal and almost all state governments.

Merge the U.S. Senate into the House of Representatives.  A similar merger would occur in all state legislatures, thus eliminating all state senates.  As of January 2022, the state of California had about 68 times more population than did the state of Wyoming. So is it not mathematically logical that Wyoming have the same representation as California with exactly two senators.  The existence of the Senate forces the country to be far more conservative than the population actually is, such as creating a permanent majority of very conservative “justices” on the U.S. Supreme Court, and being able for one man, such as conservative stalwart Senator Mitch McConnell, to single-handedly block many bills that may be supported by 70-90% of the American people and the President might support. The Senate Majority leader must no longer have the equivalent power of a king.  The American Revolution was won to eliminate this imperious power assigned to a single politician (King George), but it has insidiously crept back into the system, and should be abolished.  The establishment of direct democracy would greatly curtail these injustices.

The original 1791 Constitution provided that the U.S. Senate be set up for positions to be held only by wealthy landowners, often slaveholders, even to this day almost all senators remain wealthy landowners, who have proven to perpetually be quite out-of-touch with the American people at large.  The six-year terms, longer than the president, and three times longer than terms of the House of Representatives, are unduly long.  They should be immediately and permanently abolished, and the U.S. Congress would henceforth be made up only of the House of Representatives, which would serve four-year terms instead of the current two-year terms, which are too short.  Each November one-fourth of the House would be up for re-election, a 25% turnover every year. This same uni-cameral structure would apply to all state governments as well, with the elimination of all state senates.

Proposed Amendment #18 – The Executive Branch

The Executive Branch of the U.S. would become similar to the British system of electing the Prime Minister.  This means the U.S. President would be the leader of the party which secures the most seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, so that party would have complete control – no more gridlock, and no more perpetual “ping-pong” effect of the two major American parties constantly blaming each other for all of the country’s woes, while nothing ever gets fixed.  For example, if the Libertarian Party were to prospectively win the most seats (which could mean a plurality, or a majority), then the leader of this party (assuming s/he accepts the role, and they would not be forced to, and a different leader would be chosen) would become the American President for as long as that party maintains a plurality/majority in the U.S. House of Representatives, which by itself would be Congress. There could be imposed a maximum number of consecutive years that any president could serve, which could be 6, 8, or 10 years, for example.

The controlling party of the legislative branch would also designate the cabinet of the executive branch. Therefore, the highly controversial, un-democratic and antiquated electoral college electing the president would also be permanently abolished.

This amendment would include that a president can be recalled at any moment via a popular election, just like the British system, in which at any given time, their prime minister can be recalled if s/he falls out of favor with the vast majority of the populace.

Proposed Amendment #19 – The Judiciary Branch

U.S. Supreme Court judges would still be appointed by the president, in nine staggered terms, one appointed every two years.  Their term limits would be 18 years.

Proposed Amendment #20 – Marijuana legalization

Marijuana would be fully legalized in all states, and all “criminal” records involving marijuana be immediately and permanently expunged from the record.

Proposed Amendment #21 – Professional sports teams ownership

Teams of major sports leagues, specifically the NFL, NBA, MLB, and possibly others, would have all their teams expropriated from owners post-haste, and the teams would be turned over to the major cities in which they play. For example, the Los Angeles Rams would permanently belong to the city of Los Angeles, and can never be moved by a single capricious owner, against the will of millions of the city’s residents, which had always strongly supported their team, yet had their team stripped from them for 21 years (1995-2015 seasons) by one Georgia Frontiere. The Green Bay Packers are the only NFL team for which this is already true, as they have been owned by the city of Green Bay since the 1920s, and hence have never been moved from that venue.  They have proven that very successful sports franchises can exist without the need of a billionaire owner.  NFL owners have historically been made up of wealthy, white, “good ole boys’ who in recent decades have become multi-billionaires.  This model would be necessarily applied to all major professional sports leagues.

Proposed Amendment #22 – Federal holidays

Eliminate: President’s Day. Add: Birthdays of: Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, John Brown, W. E. B. Du Bois, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harriet Tubman, Alice Paul, Malcolm X, Cesar Chavez, also add Election Day, Halloween, Super Bowl (the Monday following the Super Bowl).


[1] University of Illinois scholars collecting, analyzing constitutions from around world. Feb 12, 2007, by Mark Reutter. Retrieved 2022-Jan-22 from: https://news.illinois.edu/view/6367/206732

[2] 750 US military bases remain around the planet. By Patterson Deppen, August 24, 2021. Retrieved 2022-Jan-7 from: https://responsiblestatecraft.org/2021/08/24/the-all-american-base-world-750-us-military-bases-remain-around-the-planet

Published by Lee Foulkes

Journalist, Teacher, U.S. & World History, Government, Economics, (24 years).